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Advances in the Study of Transionospheric Propagation of VLF Waves

LIAO Li;ZHAO Shufan;ZHANG Xuemin;Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration;Institute of Earthquake Science,China Earthquake Administration;  
Very Low Frequency(VLF) electromagnetic wave(3~30kHz) mainly radiated by lightening and ground-based VLF transmitters,which plays a very important role on controlling the distribution of high energy particles in the magnetosphere.VLF radiation can penetrate into the ionosphere,and propagate in whistler mode in the ionosphere,and interact with high energy particles in the magnetosphere.In this paper,the development of the calculation model of VLF wave penetrating into the ionosphere,the validation of the model and the application of the model in the study of the ionospheric phenomena are reviewed,and a preliminary outlook for future work has also been made.
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